Uses of radium

What Are the Uses of Radium? - Reference

Everything You Ever Want to Know About Radium and its Uses Occurrence. Radium was originally found in pitchblende ore, occurring in large amounts in Joachimsthal, Bohemia. Facts About Radium. Radium has melting point of 973 K and boiling point of 2010 K with a cubical crystalline structure. Uses of. 1 Uses. It is a highly radioactive metal; and sometime Radium-223 is used to treat prostate cancer. It is used in luminous paints We elaborate the uses of Radium and atomic properties with characteristics. Radium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element with atomic number 88. Its symbol is Ra and it belongs to the group of alkaline earth metals and its normal state in nature is solid. The radius is located at position 88 on the periodic table Science, 31.03.2020 16:10, dnyandeepnile1999 What are the uses of radium

Radium now has few uses, because it is so highly radioactive. Radium-223 is sometimes used to treat prostate cancer that has spread to the bones. Radium used to be used in luminous paints, for example in clock and watch dials Marie and Pierre Curie found radium in a sample of uraninite in 1898. After the discovery, radium was used to cure many ailments. With little to no regulation of radium and other treatments in the early 20th century, ambitious medical doctors and salesmen looked to make products using radium to cure many ailments Radium (usually in the form of radium chloride or radium bromide) was used in medicine to produce radon gas, which in turn was used as a cancer treatment; for example, several of these radon sources were used in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s

Radon Gas 'Targets Everyone' | The Star

Radioactivity : Uses of Radiu

Manufacturers used radium until the early 1970s in self-luminous paints for watches, aircraft switches, clocks, and instrument dials. Radium was used in numerous medical applications during the 20 th century as well. It was used in sealed and unsealed sources for cancer therapy Radium's main practical use has been in medicine, producing radon gas from radium chloride to be used in radiotherapy for cancer. This was a process started in Marie Curie's time. The early researchers found they received skin burns from handling the radioactive materials, and when the Curies worked with doctors, they discovered that radiation could be used to reduce or even cure tumours Radium is not a stable element. As radium decays, it releases radiation and forms decay products. Like radium, many of these decay products also release radiation and form other elements. The decay process continues until a stable, nonradioactive decay product is formed The alpha particles emitted by radium may be used to initiate nuclear reactions. Radium's uses all stem from its radioactivity. The most important use of radium was formerly in medicine, principally for the treatment of cancer by subjecting tumours to the gamma radiation of its daughter isotopes As a result, one of the first uses found for radium was in luminous paint for clock faces, alarm clocks and compasses. In 1924, a New York doctor was surprised to find signs of jaw cancer in a large number of young women who worked in the luminous paint industry

Radium and the compounds associated with it have few uses because of how the radiation it gives off kills living, healthy or unhealthy cells. Original uses included using radium for health and safety reasons, such as cancer treatment to kill infecting cells The radium is used to produce radon gas which, in turn, is used to treat cancer. Radiation given off by radium is sometimes used also to study the composition of metals, plastics, and other materials Medical and other uses of radium Medically, radium was usually injected or taken in pills. It was used to treat a wide range of ailments including hair loss, impotence, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, rheumatism, gout, sciatica, nephritis and anaemia information about past and current uses and activities involving radium-226. Excerpts from this input are as follows. Air Force regulations prohibit the purchase of new systems or items containing radium-226. All currently known uses of radium-226 are a result of legacy programs, vehicles, and aircraft

The most common isotope of radium is Radium 226, and has a half-life of a massive 1600 years! Uses of Radium: Treating cancer. Within a couple of years after the discovery of radium in 1898 by Pierre and Marie Curie, there was lots of speculation on whether the radiation could be used for therapy in the same way as that from x-rays Radium is a silvery-white metal. It is highly radioactive and its decay product, radon gas, is also radioactive. One result of radium's intense radioactivity is that the metal and its compounds glow in the dark

Commercially, radium can be obtained in its salt form, as either radium bromide or radium chloride. It is doubtful that any significant stock of the isolated element currently exists. In the 1940's, when radium was in high demand for X-rays and other war-related uses, the price per gram of radium fluctuated, but eventually the Canadians got it. On April 20, 1902, Marie and Pierre Curie successfully isolate radioactive radium salts from the mineral pitchblende in their laboratory in Paris. In 1898, th Radium is an extremely rare element on Earth. It is found in uranium ores. It takes about 7 tons of ore just to produce a single gram of radium. It is produced as a byproduct of uranium mining. Because it is so dangerous, only a few ounces are produced each year. How is radium used today? When radium was first discovered it had a number of uses When ingested, radium is particularly dangerous: Chemically, it behaves very much like calcium, said Jorgensen. Since the body uses calcium to make bone, ingested radium is mistaken for calcium.

The curie (symbol Ci) is a non-SI unit of radioactivity originally defined in 1910. According to a notice in Nature at the time, it was named in honour of Pierre Curie, but was considered at least by some to be in honour of Marie Curie as well.. It was originally defined as the quantity or mass of radium emanation in equilibrium with one gram of radium (element), but is currently defined as. THE Medical Research Council has issued a report which summarises the results of research work in the treatment of cancer done during 1930 by means of radium salt entrusted by H.M. Government to. Following the precedent set a year ago, the publication in this Journal of the present report is an attempt to maintain continuity with the series bearing the title Medical Uses of Radium which has been issued by the Medical Research Council for many years. Again the report is restricted to experimental studies which, in spite of war conditions, have been continued at many Centres Medical Uses of Radium. Medical Uses of Radium. Medical Uses of Radium Br Med J. 1937 Oct 30;2(4008):867-9. PMID: 20781015 PMCID: PMC2087611 No abstract available. THE Medical Research Council has recently published, as No. 90 of its Special Report Series, a summary of reports for 1923 from research centres on the medical uses of radium. The nine clinical.

Find an answer to your question what are the uses of radium? Yash9705 Yash9705 31.03.2020 Science Secondary School answered What are the uses of radium? 2 See answers. THE Medical Research Council has recently published, as No. 90 of its Special Report Series, a summary of reports for 1923 from research centres on the medical uses of radium. The nine clinical centres in Great Britain and Ireland which enjoy the use of radium lent to them by the Medical Research Council have been pursuing these investiga tions for several years, but this is the first occasion. Find an answer to your question what are the uses of radium? Yash9705 Yash9705 31.03.2020 Science Secondary School What are the uses of radium? 1 See answer Yash9705 is waiting for your help. Add your answer and earn points 6. Radium Clock Dials. Radium paint was special in that it tended to glow in the dark. The obvious use for this was for clock dials, so they could be seen with the lights out. Young women were.

Radium was also thought to have tonic properties, increasing the popularity of all things radium, such as radium spas, condoms, pills, creams, and pillows [16]. The residue of radium ore was even used as sand in children's play boxes [17] Uranium was used in photographic chemicals, lamp filaments, to improve the whiteness of dentures and in the leather and wood industry as stains and dyes. Uranium is also mined to isolate radium for use in glow in the dark paints for clock faces and aircraft dials. The radioisotopes from uranium are used in smoke detectors

Radium-bearing barite (radiobarite) is a common constituent of scale and sludge deposits that form in oil-field production equipment. The barite forms as a precipitate from radium-bearing, saline formation water that is pumped to the surface along with oil. Radioactivity levels in some oil-field equ Radium was an additional element discovered during that same time period. Radium and polonium were both more radioactive than uranium. Throughout her life, Curie promoted the use of radium to alleviate suffering, and during World War I, assisted by her daughter, Irene, she personally devoted herself to this work Uses . Radium is used in luminous paint. Used in medicine to produce radon gas. Radium and beryllium were once used as a portable source of neutrons. Radium isotopes are used for cancer treatment; Radium is used as additive in products like toothpaste, hair creams and even food items Uses of Radium. So what can a glowing, radioactive element actually be used for? One might imagine that because radium is radioactive, it cannot be used for much, but actually, it is just the. These radium girls, as the workers came to be known, were instructed to keep the brushes pointed using their lips. Over time, they started to suffer from a condition called radium jaw, as.

9 Ways People Used Radium Before We Understood the Risks

  1. Medical uses of radium by Medical Research Council (Great Britain), 1933, H.M.S.O edition, in Englis
  2. Following the precedent set a year ago, the publication in this Journal of the present report is an attempt to maintain continuity with the series bearing the title Medical Uses of Radium which h..
  3. Radium is a radioactive element in Group 2 (IIA) and Row 7 of the periodic table. The periodic table is a chart that shows how chemical elements are related to each other. Radium was discovered in 1898 by Marie Curie (1867-1934) and her husband, Pierre Curie (1867-1934). It was found in an ore of uranium called pitchblende
  4. Medical uses of radium by Medical Research Council (Great Britain), 1927, H.M.S.O edition, in Englis
  5. MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL'S REPORT The annual report of the Medical Research Council upon the medical uses of radium' has just been issued, and forms the tenth of the series dealing with this particular subject. A small document of some thirty pages-excluding the appendices-it nevertheless gives a concise sumimary of the research and clinical work done at the various centres in association with.
  6. Conclusion: Radium 223 is a safe and effective therapy in men with symptomatic CRPC providing a survival advantage on par with novel antiandrogens, CYP-17 inhibitors, and chemotherapy. Radium 223 has huge potential in combination strategies as well as for use earlier in the natural history of metastatic prostate cancer
  7. polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element.1 Radium and its decay product, radon, were used in medicine for well over half a century until being supplanted by radioactive isotopes prepared in nuclear reactors. This account describes their early use. Discovery In 1895, physicist.

Radium - Properties, applications and Radium Uses

First Uses. The radium sources at Memorial Hospital were first used in the treatment of skin, prostate, and gynecologic cancers. Treatments were administered in two main ways. One involved packing a radium source in a lead box with a hole in it; the box would be placed above the body with the hole positioned over the tumor Radium is luminescent, corrodes in water to form radium hydroxide. Although is the heaviest member of the alkaline-earth group it is the most volatile. Applications. Radium is used in luminous paint (in the form of radium bromide). Radium and beryllium were once used as a portable source of neutrons

How was Radium commonly used? At the beginning of the 20th century, Radium was thought to have beneficial health properties and was often added to consumer products such as toothpaste, hair creams, and even food. Radium was also used until the early 1970s in glow-in-the-dark paints, e.g., for. Radium, as radium-226 and radium-228, was used in luminous paints in the period 1920-1950. Large amounts of radium were ingested by painters of watch and instrument dials as they tipped their brushes by mouth to achieve a fine point. The radium, once ingested, behaves chemically like calcium and, therefore, deposits in significant quantities. Radium dials are watch, clock and other instrument dials painted with radioluminescent paint containing radium-226.Radium dial production peaked in the first decade of the 20th century as radiation poisoning was then unknown; subsequently, radium dials have largely been replaced by phosphorescent- or occasionally tritium-based light sources The following uses for radium are gathered from a number of sources as well as from anecdotal comments. I would be delighted to receive corrections as well as additional referenced uses.. self-luminous paints; neutron sources; medical uses for the treatment of conditions such as cancer (now being replaced by 60 Co sources

Radium's chemistry is similar to that of the other alkali earth metals. It reacts very vigorously with water to form hydrogen gas and radium hydroxide. It reacts with even more vigorously with hydrochloric acid to form radium chloride. Uses of Radium. Radium was used in the production of luminous paints, but this is now considered too dangerous What is Radium. Radium is a chemical element with atomic number 88 which means there are 88 protons and 88 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Radium is Ra.. Pure radium is silvery-white alkaline earth metal. All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226 Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more

Cost-efficient uses of radium with portable and rechargeable generators. These inexpensive uses of radium are also easy to mount on roofs and ground to utilize the sun Radium Brom Dilutions 200 - Buy online at best prices with free delivery all over India. Know composition, uses, benefits, symptoms, causes, substitutes, side effects, best foods and other precautions to be taken with Radium Brom Dilutions 200 along with ratings and in depth reviews from users

radium definition: 1. a radioactive chemical element that is used in the treatment of some diseases, especially cancer. Learn more 1. Scope 1.1 Any use of this web site (Radium Web Site) provided by Radium Lampenwerk GmbH is subject to these Terms of Use. These Terms of Use may be amended. Radium 223 is a mildly radioactive form of the metal radium. It used to be called Alpharadin and now has the brand name Xofigo (pronounced zoh-fee-go). Radium 223 can shrink areas of cancer cells that have spread to the bone. This reduces symptoms, such as pain, and helps you feel more comfortable Radium definition is - an intensely radioactive metallic chemical element that occurs in combination in minute quantities in minerals (such as pitchblende or carnotite), emits alpha particles and gamma rays to form radon, and is used chiefly in the treatment of cancer and in radiographic devices

Everything You Ever Want to Know About Radium and its Uses

NCCN Guidelines Radium-223 for prostate cancer, radium-223 mCRPC, ERA-223, bone protecting agents in prostate cancer treatment, bone metastatic disease, Ra223. combination therapys radium 223, Bone targeted therapies radium, a radiopharmaceutical used to treat prostate cancer that has metastasized in the bone, Tanya Dorff, Alicia Morgan Radium adheres to soil particles and is generally less mobile in clay soils than in sandy soils (1). Radium-226 was found to exist primarily in the dissolved phase of estuary water in studies of the cycling of three radionuclides in the Tagus estuary (2). Radium exists as the 2+ ion in solution (3) Radium infusions . Once this water was released to the public, it took off. RadiThor was especially popular in the 1920's, when people could buy a 1-ounce bottle for $1. Now, that's over $15, but customers were eager to reap the proclaimed health benefits. Doctors started prescribing it for everything from high blood pressure to arthritis. IYPT 2019 Elements 088: Radium: Radiation, watch dials and toothpaste. Element 88 in our International Year of the Periodic Table series is radium. Radium is highly radioactive, but the dangers of radiation were only fully understood after it had been used for a number of years in consumer products. Radium was one of the elements discovered by.

Radium-223 dichloride is an alpha-particle emitting radio isotope. The drug mimics calcium and forms complexes with the bone mineral at sites of bone metastases. It then emits alpha particles, causing the destruction of DNA in nearby cells, resulting in cancer cell death in the bone This is the first study using radium dichloride [223 Ra] RaCl 2 for the treatment of RA. The data showed that the intra-articular use of [ 223 Ra] RaCl 2 reduced total leukocyte, neutrophil, and mononuclear cell migration in the synovial region, with an overall reduction in inflammatory response External radium use continued, however, until another scare came in the 1960s, following the release of the first decisive epidemiologic studies on people exposed to radiation during the WWII. Radium isotopes adsorbed on MnO 2 ash were analysed using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry at the underground laboratory of Ferrières (LAFARA, LAboratoire de mesure des FAibles RAdioactivités) located in the French Pyrénées, 100 km from Toulouse (van Beek et al. Reference Van Beek, Souhaut and Reyss 2010, van Beek et al

Uses of Radium Benefits of Radium - Properties of Metal

  1. Radium-224. Please visit the Radium element page for information specific to the chemical element of the periodic table. PubChem CID. 6328538. Structure. Find Similar Structures. Molecular Formula. Ra. Synonyms
  2. Radium. 45 likes. This page is all about the element Radium (Atomic number of 88
  3. ous paint (in the form of radium bromide). Radium and beryllium were once used as a portable source of neutrons. Radium is used in medicine to produce radon gas, used for cancer treatment. Why is radium so important? According to the Royal Society of Chemistry, radium is in the same group as calcium and is sometimes used.
  4. The Effects of Radium Treatment on War Injuries in the neighbourhood of Nerves.Brit. Med. Jour., June 26th, 1920. Notes on Three Cases of Peritonitis treated by Radium.Dublin Jour. of Med. Science, February, 1922. A Year's Work with Radium, including a brief Summary of 174 Cases treated during 1924.Irish Jo. Med. Sci., May, 1925
  5. 1. Mo Med. 1976 Mar;73(3):138-42. Uses of radium and special methods of application in radiotherapy. Canoy NR, Richter CW, Guerra ON. PMID
  6. In this, the 14th Annual Report, an account is given of a year's study of the action and uses of radium and X-rays in medicine. Experimental work has been carried out from various aspects, including much on the physics of radiation, and it is likely that the considerations raised will in time come to have practical significance. The problem of standardizing a unit for radium dosage is offering..
  7. Medical Uses of Radium Nature - United Kingdom doi 10.1038/115174a0. Full Text Open PDF Abstract. Available in full text. Categories Multidisciplinary. Date. January 1, 1925. Authors. Unknown. Publisher. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. Related search. Medical Uses of Radium: Reports From Research Centres BMJ

Radium in Humans - DOE/OSTI widespread uses of radium in industry and in the medical profession, nor would it address the early history of the discovery of the hazards of radium. Such an ACC0029.pd Intended for healthcare professionals. Subscribe; My Account . My email alert

Uses Of Radium And Atomic Properties With Characteristics

Radium is one type of radioactive material that could be found in antiques. When radium was discovered in the early 1900s, people were fascinated by its mysterious glow and it was added to many everyday products, including paints. These paints were used on the dials of clocks and watches to make them glow-in-the-dark Nov. 14, 1936 MEDICAL USES OF RADIUM I'EC.R1OT' MDCALJOURNA 987 8 MEDICAL USES OF RADIUM REPORT BY MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL The report of the Medical Research Council upon the medical uses of radium' contains, as usual, a great deal of information condensed into a very small space, and includes accounts of experimental as well as of clinical work Other radium weed benefits and uses include: Reducing inflammation. Treating respiratory conditions like asthma. Stopping diarrhea. Lowering high blood pressure. One of the main radium weed uses is for: Skin Cancer - Radium weed for cancer has been studied because of its potent effect on fast-growing cells

This review focuses on the chemistry and application of radium isotopes to environmental monitoring, analytical, and medicinal uses. In recent years, radium has been used primarily as a tracer to study the migration of radioactive substances in environmental systems. Tracing the naturally occurring radium isotopes in mineral and water sources allows for the determination of source location. uses of radium Radium is used in paints for numbers on clocks and watches. There were women workers, or radium girls, in around 1917, who painted glow in the dark watches. The radium girls were incouraged to wet and shape there paint brushes with there mouths. They thought that there job was so fun at first so they started to paint there nails. The discovery of Radium by the Curies was a catalyst for x-rays and the medical field because once it was discovered in the early 1900's, it quickly emerged. Marie Curie's role in this activity cannot be overestimated (Liniecki). The discovery of Radium by Marie Curie could also be described as the cornerstone of treatment for cancer Radon is formed from radium decomposition. Radon is also the heaviest gas and harmful to health. Rn-222 has a half-life of 3.8 days and is used in radiotherapy.(Read Examples of Monoatomic and Diatomic Gases) The radon name comes from radium. Radon was discovered in 1900 by Friedrich Ernst Dorn, who wrought it as radium emission

Radium used to be All the Rage - Until the Devastating Case of the 'Radium Girls'. It might sound foolish, but less than 100 years ago, people believed that radioactive elements were wondrous things. It was also widely accepted that a little bit of radium was good for human health. It was believed that it cured cancer, arthritis, high. Radium Ra 223 Dichloride is the radioisotope radium-223 that emits short range but high linear energy alpha particles. As a cation, radium mimics calicum and binds to hydroxyapatite, which is a bone mineral found in areas of high bone turnover as seen in bone metastases. The high energy damages bone cells by introducing double-stranded DNA breaks

“Radium Women” Dial Painters: Unwitting Experimental

What are the uses of radium

Radium-bearing barite (radiobarite) is a common constituent of scale and sludge deposits that form in oil-field production equipment. The barite forms as a precipitate from radium-bearing, saline formation water that is pumped to the surface along with oil. Radioactivity levels in some oil-field equipment and in soils contaminated by scale and sludge can be sufficiently high to pose a. These Mysterious Rays: A Nontechnical Discussion of the Uses of X-Rays and Radium, Chiefly. Other uses of radioactivity. Sterilization of medical instruments and food is another common application of radiation. By subjecting the instruments and food to concentrated beams of radiation, we can kill microorganisms that cause contamination and disease Additionally, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase are emerging as important biomarkers during radium-223 treatment. Optimal concomitant standard-of-care therapies (such as abiraterone or enzalutamide) to be administered with radium-223 have yet to be defined as does the most efficacious dose and duration of radium-223 treatment Uses of Radon Gas. Radon gas is a colorless, odorless gas that most people associate with the risk of lung cancer. It does have its uses, though they are limited. Radon belongs to a group of elements called the noble or inert gases 4. These gases generally do not react with other elements to form complex molecules, which limits their usefulness. The Radium is one of the most radioactive chemical elements (symbol Ra and atomic number 88), 1000 times more radioactive than Uranium. Its most stable isotope, Ra-226, has a half-life of 1602.

Radium is used to produce radon, a radioactive gas used to treat some types of cancer. A single gram of radium-226 will produce 0.000l milliliters of radon a day. Radium in Physics. Pure radium is a volatile silvery-white metal, although its lighter congener's calcium, strontium, and barium have a slight yellow tint The isotope of radium with the longest half-life is radium-226 which has a half-life of about 1600 years. Uses of radium. Radium, because it can glow was once used to make luminous paints. For example, it was once used on clocks that were designed to be visible in the dark and was even used in toothpaste Properties, sources and uses of the element radium. Radium has an abundance of about 1 part per trillion in the Earth's crust, according to Chemicool.Trace amounts of radium are found in uranium. Oct 06, · Marie Curie struggled to purify it for medical uses, including early radiation treatment for tumors. How many women were sickened by working with radium is . Sep 01, · Earlier this year I read RADIUM GIRLS by Kate Moore which is a non-fiction book about the woman who painted pocket watches with radium during WWI

Is radium used today? - AskingLot

USE OF RADIUM IN CONSUMER PRODUCTS. Full Record; Other Related Research; Authors: Robinson, E W Publication Date: Fri Oct 31 00:00:00 EST 1969 Research Org.: National Center for Radiological Health, Rockville, Md. OSTI Identifier: 477740 Radium Ra 223 dichloride is used to treat prostate cancer that has spread to the bones and cannot be treated with surgery. Radium Ra 223 dichloride may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. Warnings. radium Ra 223 dichloride can increase your risk of bleeding or infection. You will need frequent medical tests Radium, atomic number 88, is a silver white metal that is naturally radioactive. Radioactivity is a very important source of Earth's internal heat; it is likely the engine that drives the drift of the continents, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Geologists use the natural radioactivity of some minerals to help them estimate the ages of.

Radium: a medical treatment in the early 20th centur

osti.gov journal article: summary and conclusions of the conference on medical uses of radium and radium substitutes U.S. Radium. The U.S. Radium Corporation was the company that hired the women to paint the dials. The owners of the corporation were aware of the dangerous, life-threatening effects of radium. However, they neglected to say something. Instead, the girls were told that they were ingesting a substance that was completely harmless radium watch dial painters One of the first major events to highlight the dangers of ionizing radiation was the case of the Radium Girls, workers whose job was painting watch dials with radium. Though there was enough suspicion of the effects of ionizing radiation for the management of the company to take precautions, they offered none to. Marie Curie and the perils in radium. Contrary to popular belief, the Nobel laureate was a leading advocate for regulations protecting against the hazards of radioactivity. Marie Curie works in her laboratory. Credit: Radium Institute, courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives. On 1 November 1929, Marie Curie spent her evening at the Plaza.

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Radium-226 and radium-228, both found in brine waste, are known carcinogens and can lead to bone, liver, and breast cancer in humans if levels are high enough, according to the U.S. Centers for. Radium's Harmful Effects: Radium is highly radioactive and hence carcinogenic. Microscopic quantities of radium in the environment can lead to some accumulation of radium in bone tissue. Radium,.. Compendium Of Abstracts Of Papers On The Therapeutic Use Of Radium Radium Chemical Company, Between Unity And Diversity: Essys On Nation-building In Post-apartheid South Africa G. Maharaj, Walla Walla (Images Of America: Washington) Elizabeth Gibson, Memoirs Of Celebrated Female Sovereigns, Volume 1 Anonymou Radium definition, a highly radioactive metallic element whose decay yields radon gas and alpha rays. Symbol: Ra; atomic weight: 226; atomic number: 88. See more you expressly understand and agree that we shall not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, consequential or exemplary damages, including but not limited to, damages for loss of profits, goodwill, use, data or other intangible loss (even if we have been advised of the possibility of such damages), resulting from or arising out of (i) the use of or the inability to use the.

Biography of Marie Curie | Simply KnowledgeIodine (Matthew Lundberg)Before 'raw water,' radium water was the craze — and then